A Study on the Socio-cultural Factors Affecting Women's Cosmetic Surgery (A Case Study of Women in Noor City)

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Social Sciences, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol, Iran


The tendency toward beauty is natural and common among all human beings. However, today, the tendency toward beauty, as a social phenomenon, has reached the stage of vanity and showing off. Cosmetic surgery is one of the significant issues in the field of medicine and culture, and one of the topics studied in the field of sociology. This study aims to investigate the sociocultural factors affecting cosmetic surgery of women in Noor city. The theoretical approach of the study includes anthropology, sociology and feminism. The methodological strategy of the research is based on using the research method. The population of the study was 329 participants. The data were analyzed using the mean comparison test, T- test, one-way variance analysis, and multiple regressions. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between cosmetic surgery and consumerism, cultural capital, social pressure, higher social status and body management. There is also a negative relationship between cosmetic surgery and negative perceptions of the body.


Aram, M. (2007). Comparison of psychiatric disorders emphasizing the body dysmorphic disorder in volunteers and non-volunteers of rhinoplasty in Islamic Azad University of Kerman. Medical doctoral thesis. Kerman: Kerman University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.

2.Asadi, M., Salehi, M. Afkhamebrahimi, A. (2012). Self- esteem and the attitude toward one’s appearance before and after the rhinoplasty. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 9(1), 23-28.

3. Azadarmaki, T. & Chavoshian, H. ( 2002). The body as the media of identity. Journal of Iran Sociology, 4(4).

4. Azadarmaki, T. & Chavoshian, H. (2002). The body as the identity media. Journal of Iran Sociology, vol 16, pp.57-75.

5. Azadarmaki, T. & Gharab, N. (2008). Body and identity. Cultural Studies and Communications, 13, 101-123.

6. Azadarmaki, T.(2002). Theories in sociology. Tehran: Soroosh Publication.

7. Bedar & Lock, Lamarsh, L. & Jose, Z. (2001). Social psychology. Translated by Hamzeh Gangi, Teharn:  Savalan Publication.

8. Belali, E. & Afsharkohan, J. (1389). Beauty and money, makeup and Surgery. Journal of Women's Cultural and Social Council, 12(47), 99-140.

9. Belali, E. & Afsharkohan, J. (2010). Beauty and money, cosmetics and surgery. Women Strategic Studies, l47,  pp.141-499.

10. Bohne, A. Keathen, J., Wilhelm, S., Deckersback, T. & Jenike. M.. (2002). Prevalence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder and is correlates: A cross-cultural comparison.

11. Durant , W. (2012). Civilization history of Will Durant. Tehran: Behboud Publication.

12. Eliot,  A. (1995). Social psychology. Translated by Sheikhol Islamzadeh, Tehran: Samt Publication.

13. Ernson, A. (2007). Social psychology. Tehran: Roshd Publication.

14. Featherstone, M. (2001). Aesthetic of daily life. Arghanoun Quarterly, Vol 19, pp.30-40.

15. Ghalebandi, A. (2004). Personality pattern of rhinoplasty applicants.  Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 9(4), 4-10.

16. Giddens, A. (2007). Sociology of Anthony Giddens. Tehran: Ney Publication.

17. Giddens, A. (2007). Consequences of modernity. Tehran: Markazi Publication.

18. Giddens, A. (2006). Modernization and individuation, society and personal identity in modern era. Tehran: Ney Publication.

‌19. Gill, R., Henwood, K., & McLean, C. (2005).  Body projects and the regulation of normative masculinity. Body & Society, 11(1) 37-62.

20. Gybynz, J. R. & Wimmer, B. (2002). The politics of postmodernity. Translated by Ansari, M. Tehran: Gam Nou Publication.

21. Holliday, R., & Cairnie, A. (2007). Man-made plastic, investigating men’s consumption of aesthetic surgery. Journal of Consumer Culture, 7(1), 57-78.

22. Javaheri, F. (2008). Body and its socio- cultural implications. Cultural bulletin, 9 (1) 37-80.

23. Keown, R. (2005). Research methodology in social sciences. Tehran:  Gotia Publication.

24. Kuzaran, L. (1995). Biography of eminent researchers in sociology. Tehran: Elmi Publication.

25. Malek, H. (2002). Sociology of classes and social inequality. Tehran: Payamnoor University ( PNU).

26. Pierro, A. (2010). Culture of social silences. Tehran: Keyhan Publication.

27. Rajabi, M. (2009). Sociological investigation of redefining female identity and their tendency to cosmetic surgery in Tehran. Master's Thesis. Tehran: Alzahra University.

28.  Retizer, G. (1995). Contemporary sociological theories. Tehran: Elmi Publication.

29. Rouholamini, M. (1998). History of ethnography. Tehran: Attar Publication.

30. Saeedi, A. (2007). The body and consumer culture. Monthly Journal of Cultural Engineering, 2, 14.

31. Saroukhani, B. (1994). .Research methodology in social sciences. Tehran:  Scientific and Cultural Publication Company.

32. Saroukhani, B. (1996). An introduction to the encyclopedia of the social Sciences (1st ed.). Tehran: Keyhan Publication.

33. Seyyedinia, A. (2009). Consumption and consumerism from Islamic and economic sociology perspective.  Scientific, Economic, Islamic, and Research Quarterly, 34, 151-178.

34. Shirin, M. (2003). Last tools to be young forever. Tehran: Hambastegi Publication.

35. Tavassoli, G. & Modiri, F. (2012). Investigation of women’s tendency toward cosmetic surgery in Tehran. Women Social and Psychological Studies, 10(1), pp. 61-82.

36. Tavassoli, G. (2004). Analysis of Pierre Bourdieu's ideas about the social conflict and the role of sociology.  Social Sciences Research, 23 (3), 1-27.

37.Turner, B. (2005).  Jonathan's concepts and applications of sociology.Tehran: Imam Khomeini Research Institute Publication.

38. Zamani, N. & Fazilatpour, M. (2013).The effect of cosmetic surgery on self- esteem and the negative perceptions of the body. Kerman Journal of Medical Sciences, 2(5), 492-504. Kerman.

39. Zokaei, M. (2007). Sociology of Iranian youth. Tehran:  Agah Publication.

40. Zokaei, M. (2007). Sociology of Iranian youth. Tehran: Agah Publication.