Prediction of Instagram Social Network Addiction Based on the Personality, Alexithymia and Attachment Styles

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Sociology, Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

2 Department of Sociology, West Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

Abstract

      Instagram is the fastest growing social network site globally. Instagram is an online, mobile phone photo-sharing, video-sharing, and social network service that enables its users to take pictures and videos, and then share them on other platforms. The purpose of this study is to distinguish the student’s Instagram social network addiction by personality, alexithymia and attachment styles in Tehran city. In this correlational study, a group of 100 high school students (50 Instagram social network addicted and 50 non -addicted) as multi stage sampling are selected. The data collected by the questionnaires of Costa and McCrae (1982) personality scale, Bagboy, Parker and Taylor's twenty-item Toronto alexithymia scale (1994), Collins and Read attachment styles scale (1990) and researcher made Instagram. The obtained data were analyzed by using the technique of discriminated analysis. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that variables of neuroticism, alexithymia, ambivalent and avoidant attachment style can help in predicting how students are involved in Instagram addiction. The study selected 81 percent of the students for their actual classification. The results of this study emphasized on relationship between neuroticism, alexithymia, ambivalent and avoidant attachment style with Instagram addiction. Thus, the prevention and treatment of dependence to Instagram mentioned variables are very important.

Keywords


  1. Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive behaviors64, 287-293.
  2. Agha Yousefi, A., Saravani, S., Zeraati, R., Razaghi, F, and Pourabdel, S. (2015). Students' academic performance prediction based on attachment styles and different levels of adaptability. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 21 (4), 316-308.
  3. Asgari, P. And Marashian, F. (2008). The Relationship between personality characteristics and computer anxiety with Internet addiction in Islamic Azad University students of Ahvaz Branch. New Findings in Psychology, 2 (7), 35-23.
  4. Basharpour, S., Dashti, N. And Atadkhat, O. (2016). Comparison of self-regulation, self-concept and narcissism of addicted and non-addicted students to virtual social networks. Journal of Health and Care, 18 (3), 257-247
  5. Besharat, M. And Ganji, P. (2012). The role of moderating attachment styles in the relationship between alexithymia and marital satisfaction. Magazine of Principles of Mental Health, 14 (4), 335-324.
  6. Besharat, M. (2009). Alexithymia and interpersonal problems. Journal of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 35, 146-129.
  7. Besharat, M., Ofoghi, Z., Aghaee, S., Habibnejad, M., Pournqd ali, AS. And Grunmaie Pour, Sh. (2013). The role of moderator of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the relationship between alexithymia and interpersonal problems. New Cognitive Science, 15 (4), 52-43.
  8. Bagboy, R.M., Parker, J. D.A., &Taylor, G.J. (1994).The twenty-item Toronto alexithymia scale: I- item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. J Psychosom Res. 38, 23-32.
  9. Błachnio, A., Przepiorka, A., Senol-Durak, E., Durak, M., & Sherstyuk, L. (2017). The role of personality traits in Facebook and Internet addictions: A study on Polish, Turkish, and Ukrainian samples. Computers in Human Behavior68, 269-275.
10. Burnell, K., & Kuther, T. L. (2016). Predictors of Mobile phone and social networking site dependency in adulthood. Cyber Psychology, Behavior, and Social Networking19(10), 621-627.

11. Collins, N.R., & Read, S.J., (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personal Sociology, 58, 644–663.

12. Cook, D. (1991). Shame, attachment, and addictions: Implications for family therapists, Contemporary Family Therapy, 13,405-419.

13. Costa, P.T., & Mccare, R. R. (2002). Measuring five major dimensions or domains of normal adult personality. Psychology assessment resource.inc.

14. Costa, P.T., &McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEOPI-R)and NEO five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual Odessa. FI: Psychological Assessment Resources.

15. Detrick, P., & Chibnall, J. T. (2016). A Five-factor model inventory for use in screening police officer applicants: The Revised NEO Personality. Police Psychology and Its Growing Impact on Modern Law Enforcement, 79.

16. Eidi Khatibi, R and Qaderi, b. (2015). The relationship between attachment styles and the amount of presence in virtual social networks. First International Conference of Social Sciences and Sociology. Shiraz: Kharazmi High School of Science and Technology.

17. Elhai, J. D., Levine, J. C., Dvorak, R. D., & Hall, B. J. (2017). Non-social features of smartphone use are most related to depression, anxiety and problematic smartphone use. Computers in Human Behavior69, 75-82.

18. Hassanzadeh, R., Bidokhi, A., Rezaei, A. And Rahaei, f. (2012). The relationship between addiction to the Internet with academic achievement and learner personality traits. Quarterly Journal of Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences. 3 (1), 107-95.

19. Ho, H., Shin, W., & Lwin, M. O. (2017). Social networking site use and materialistic values among youth: The safeguarding role of the parent-child relationship and self-regulation. Communication Research, 0093650216683775.

20. Holland, G., & Tiggemann, M. (2017). Strong beats skinny every time”: Disordered eating and compulsive exercise in women who post fitspiration on Instagram. International Journal of Eating Disorders50(1), 76-79.

21. Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Chen, C. C., Chen, S. H., Wu, K., & Yen, C. F. (2006). Tridimensional personality of adolescents with internet addiction and substance use experience. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry51(14), 887-894.

22. Marino, C., Vieno, A., Pastore, M., Albery, I. P., Frings, D., & Spada, M. M. (2016). Modeling the contribution of personality, social identity and social norms to problematic Facebook use in adolescents. Addictive behaviors63, 51-56.

23. Martinez, C. (2017). Who uses social networking Sites? Exploring associations among personality, and the relationship with Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.scholarworks.boisestate.edu, 75(1), 1-10.

24. Matook, S., Cummings, J., & Bala, H. (2015). Are you feeling lonely? The impact of relationship characteristics and online social network features on loneliness. Journal of Management Information Systems31(4), 278-310.

25. Meganck, R., Vanheule, S., & Desmet, M. (2008). Factorial validity and measurement invariance of the 20-item Toronto alexithymia scale in clinical and non-clinical samples. Assessment, 15, 36-47.

26. Moghinizadeh, Z. And Vafaei Najar, A. (2015). Study of the relationship between attachment with Internet addiction in students, Journal of Basic Principles of Mental Health, 18 (4), 226-220.

27. Naiami, A and Nouri Samarin, Sh. (2015). Prognosis of social networking based on loneliness and self-esteem in female students. Women's Magazine in the Culture and Arts University of Tehran, 8 (2), 204-193.

28. Noori Samarin, Sh. And Nargesi, F (2013). Relationship of alexithymia dimensions with loneliness and comparison of male and female students. Quarterly Journal of Jentishapir, 4 (1), 192-184.

29. Odacı, H, & Çıkrıkçı Ö. (2014). Problematic Internet use in terms of gender, attachment styles and subjective well-being in university students. Comput Hum Behav, 32 (0), 61-6. 20.

30. Ogaji, I. J., Okoyeukwu, P. C., Wanjiku, I. W., Osiro, E. A., & Ogutu, D. A. (2017). Pattern of use of social media networking by Pharmacy students of Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. Computers in Human Behavior66, 211-216.

31. Oshri, A., Sutton, T.E., Clay-Warner, J., Miller, J.D. (2015). Child maltreatment types and risk behaviors: Associations with attachment style and emotion regulation dimensions. Pers Indiv Differ, 73 (0), 127-33.

32. Park, S. Y., Kim, S. M., Kee, B. S., Han, D. H., Na, C., Kim, G. J., & Lee, N. M. (2015). The correlation between maternal adult attachment style and postpartum depression and parenting stress. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association54(4), 515-522.

33. Parker, D. A., Taylor, G. J & Bagboy, R. M. (2001). The relationship between emotional intelligence and alexithymia. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 107-115.

34. Ramkumar, P. N., Navarro, S. M., Haeberle, H. S., Chughtai, M., Flynn, M. E., & Mont, M. A. (2017). Social media and total joint arthroplasty: An analysis of patient utilization on Instagram. The Journal of Arthroplasty.

35. Rostami, Ch., Ardalan, A., Ahmadian, H. And Mahdi Abadi, S. (2016). Internet addiction study based on five personality factors in students of Paramedical School of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. Zanjou Journal of Medical Sciences, 1 (1), 73-65.

36. Senormanci, O., Senormanci, G., Guclu, O., & Konkan, R. (2013). Attachment and family functioning in patients with Internet addiction. Gen Hosp Psychiatry, 43 (13), 63-83.

37. Stapleton, P., Luiz, G., & Chatwin, H. (2017). Generation validation: The role of social comparison in use of Instagram among emerging adults. Cyber Psychology, Behavior, and Social Networking20(3), 142-149.

38. Suslow, T., Rufer, M., Kersting, A., & Guenther, V. (2016). Predicting symptoms in major depression after inpatient treatment: The role of alexithymia. European Psychiatry, 33, S524.

39. Tang, C. S. K., & Koh, Y. Y. W. (2017). Online social networking addiction among college students in Singapore: Comorbidity with behavioral addiction and affective disorder. Asian Journal of Psychiatry25, 175-178.

40. Tavakoli, N., Jamhari, F. And Farrokhi, N. (2014). The relationship between attachment styles and fear of negative evaluation with Internet addiction in students. Quarterly Journal of Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences, 5 (2), 77-61.

41. Taylor, G. J., & Bagboy, M. (2000). An overview of the alexithymia construct. In: Bar-On R, Parker JDA. (editors). The handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1(2), 263-76.

42. Turel, O., & Bechara, A. (2017). Effects of motor impulsivity and sleep quality on swearing, interpersonally deviant and disadvantageous behaviors on online social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences108, 91-97.

43. Vanheule, S., Desmet, M., Meganck, R., & Bogaerts, S. (2007). Alexithymia and interpersonal problems, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 109-117.