The Role of Emotional Intelligence, Cultural Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence on Individual-Social Adjustment in Young Students

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Psycology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

Abstract

Students, when entering the community of university, are faced with changes which might affect their individual-social adjustment. Individual-social adjustment will be proved by person's interaction with the environment skills and its result is that person enjoys of social interaction, positive feelings about themselves and others and leave a positive impact on others. The present study was to investigate the role of intelligence aspect consisted of  emotional intelligence,  cultural intelligence and the spiritual intelligence with  individual-social adjustment in students in Lorestan University. Present research was correlation type.  For this purpose, the sample of research included 306 subjects (133 men and 125 women) based on Krejcie and Morgan Scedual (1971) and sampling style was random cluster sampling. Data collection tools include Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (0/78), Spiritual Intelligence Questionnaire (0/88), Cultural Intelligence Questionnaire (0/89) and California Test of Personality (0/69).  The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions in significant level 0/001. The results showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between emotion intelligence, cultural intelligence and spiritual intelligence with individual-social adjustment. The results of multiple regression analysis showed multiple correlation between emotional intelligence, cultural intelligence and spiritual intelligence with individual-social adjustment and emotional intelligence were good predictors of individual-social adjustment.

Keywords


  1. Abolqasemi, A., & Narimani, M. (2006). Psychological tests. Ardabil: Bagh Rezvan.
  2. Ahadi, B., Mirzaie, P., Narimani, M., & Abolqasemi, A. (2010). The impact of social problem solving on shy students' social adaptation and performance in realm of disabled children.
  3. Ahmadi, Y. (2012). Religious attitude and cultural intelligence. Marefat, 20(8), 123-128.
  4. Ahadi, Y., & Gasemi, V. (2013). The effect of social collaboration, innovation and tribalism on cultural intelligence. Science and Research Quarterly, 20, 130-140.
  5. Adibrad, N. (2008). Cultural intelligence in today's organizations. Organizational and Occupational Counselling Quarterly, 1(1), 25-36..
  6. Aftekar Sadi, Z., Mehrabi Honarmand, M., Najarian, B., Ahadi, H., &  Askari, P. (2011). The study of emotional intelligence training impact on decreasing the rate of violence and promoting personal / social adaptation in junior high school students in Ahvaz. New Psychological Findings, 12( 4), 138-149.
  7. Aishah, H. S., & Shabani, J. (2012). The mediating role of emotional intelligence between spiritual intelligence and mental health problems among Iranian adolescents. Psychological Studies, 2(1), 21-43.
  8. Amram, J. (2005). Intelligence beyond IQ: The contribution of emotional and spiritual intelligences to effective business leadership. Transpersonal Psychology, 3, 43-56.
  9. Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., & Ng, K. Y. (2004). The measurement of cultural intelligence. In Academy of Management Meetings Symposium on Cultural Intelligence in the 21st Century, New Orleans, LA.
  10. Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K. Y., Templer, K. J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N. A. (2007). Cultural intelligence: It's measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3(3), 335-371.
  11. Animasahun, R. A. (2010). Intelligent quotient, emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence as correlates of prison adjustment among inmates in Nigeria Prisons. Journal of Social Science, 22(2), 121-128.
  12. Asgari, P., & Roshani, K. (2013). Comparing cultural / emotional intelligence and male/ female students' personal and social adaptation in Ahvaz Islamic Azad University. Women and Culture Journal of Science and Research, 3(12), 63-69.
  13. Bar-on, R., & Parker, J. D. A. (2000). Bar-on emotional quotient inventory, Youth version (EQ-:YV): Technical manual. Canada: Multi-Health System.
  14. Bastani, S., & Salehi Hikoui, M. (2008). Social resources of network and gender: Studying the constituent, Interactive, and performative functions of men and women in social networks in Tehran, Social Sciences Journal, 30, 63-95.
  15. Baptista, J., Osório, A., Martins, E. C., Verissimo, M., & Martins, C. (2016). Does social–behavioral adjustment mediate the relation between executive function and academic readiness? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 46,  22-30.
  16. Brislin, R., Worthley, R., & MacNab, B. (2006). Cultural intelligence understanding of behaviors that serve people’s goals. Group and Organization Management,  3, 40-55.
  17. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morisson, H. (2001). Research methods in education.  Routledge Falmer.
  18. Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. A. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford University Press.
  19. Emmons,  R. (2000). Spirituality  and  intelligence:   Problems  and  prospect. Canada: Multi-Health System.
  20. Earley, P. C, Mosakowski,  E. (2005). Cultural intelligence. Harvard Business Review, 3, 139-146.
  21. Fabricatore, A., Handle, P., and Fenzel, M. (2000). Personal spirituality as moderator between stressors and subjective well – being. Journal of Psychology  and Theology, 28(3), 221-228.
  22. Fatemi, S.M. (2010). Emotional intelligence. Tehran: Sargol Press.
  23. Golman, D.  (2001). Emotional intelligence: Issues in paradigm building, In C. Cherniss & D. Golman (Eds.), The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace, San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
  24. Gol Mohamadian, M., Farbaksh, K., & Esmailie, M. (2014).  The impact of behavioral / spiritual/ cultural intelligence on conjugal dissatisfaction. Family Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 12, 211-220.
  25. Hosseini, M., Elias, H., Krauss, S. E., & Aishah, S. (2010). A review study on spiritual intelligence, adolescence and spiritual intelligence, factors that may contribute to individual differences in spiritual intelligence and the related theories. Journal of Social Sciences, 6 (3),429-438.
  26. Isfahani Asl, M. (2003). The comparison of personal/social adaptation and female senior high students' Performance. M.A.Thesis. Ahvaz: Ahvaz Islamic Azad University.
  27. James, C., Bore, M., & Zito, S. (2012). Emotional intelligence and personality as predictors of psychological well-being. Journal of Psych educational, 30(4), 425-438.
  28. Kazemi, P. (2010).  The impact of couples' life quality improvement scheme on conjugal satisfaction and mental well-being. M.A. Thesis in Clinical Psychology. Mashhad: Mashhad Ferdowsi University.
  29. King, D. B. (2008). Personal meaning production as a component of spiritual intelligence. The 5th Biennial International Conference on Personal Meaning. Toronto: Ontario.
  30. King, D. B., & De Cicco, T. L. (2009). A viable model and self-report measure of spiritual intelligence. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 28, 68-85.
  31. Kodaiari Fard, M., Rahimi Nejat, A., & Abedini, Y. (2008). Examining the contributing factors in Shahed Students' social adaptation. A Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 26 ( 3), 118 – 230. Shiraz University.
  32. Kuo, Ch. Ch.,  Liang, K. Ch.,  Tseng, Ch. CH.,  Shur, S., &  Gau, F. (2014). Comparison of the cognitive profiles and social adjustment between mathematically and scientifically talented students and students with Asperger's syndrome. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders,  8 ( 7),  838-850.
  33. Mary Basil, N. (2011). Ethnic group, age and gender differences in social adjustment of teenagers in Nigeria", International Journal of Psychological Studies , 3(1), 58-68. 
  34. Masnavi , J., Haqiqi, J., Mehrabizade, Honarmand, M., & Boshlide, K. (2014). The effect of courage training on promoting social skills and expression. Journal of Psychology, 3(13), 111-124.
  35. Michaeli, M., & Madadi Emamzade, A. (2009).  The relationship between emotional/ social intelligence and social adaptation in students with /without a disciplinary sentence in Oroumie University. Tabriz University Science and Research Quarterly, 3(11), 105-112.
  36. Mohamadkani, K., & Teimouri, V. (2012). Cultural intelligence and universal leadership, Strategic Studies Journal, 2 (2), 93-110.
  37. Nasel, D. (2004). Spiritual orientation in relation to spiritual intelligence: A consideration of traditional christianity and new age/individualistic spirituality "Australia: The University of South Australi.
  38. Ragibi, M., Moalemi, S., & Bakshani, N. (2011). Study of mental well – being, spiritual intelligence and dysfunctional thoughts in Sistan Balouchestan University. Mental Well-being Principles, 4(12), 702-709.
  39. Ragibi, M., & Qare Chahi, M. (2015). The relationship between emotional/spiritual intelligence in coupes on verge of divorce. Woman and Society Journal of Science and Research, 4(1), 123-130.
  40. Rajaee, A. (2011). Spiritual intelligence: Perspectives and challenges. Journal of Educational, 1(5), 21-49.
  41. Rezvanian Shad, M. (2006). Relationship between emotional intelligence and students' social adaptation and education. M.A. Thesis. Tabriz University: Humanities Department.
  42. Roshanaie, M. (2011). The impact of personal features on students' adaptation to university setting. Higher Education Journal of Research and Planning, 55, 19-43.
  43. Sadock, B. J., & sadock, V. A. (2003). Synopsis of psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott & williares.
  44. Safarinia, M. (2011). Correspondence between cultural intelligence and students' personality types. M.A. Thesis. Behshar Payam-e- Noor University: Psychology Department.
  45. Safavi, M., Mousavi Lotfi, M., & Lotfi, R. (2010). Correlation found between emotional intelligence and female pre- university students' emotional / social adaptation in Tehran. Medical Science Journal of Shahid Beheshti University, 14 (5), 255-261.
  46. Sahebalzamani, M., Farahani, H., Abasi, R., & Talebi, M. (2013). The relationship between spiritual intelligence with psychological well‑being and purpose in life of nurses. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 18 (1), 38-41.
  47. Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence, imagination, cognition and personality, 9, 185–211.
  48. Samoie, R. (2005). Translation and normalization of Bar on emotional intelligence test. Tehran: Sina Institute of Psychological Studies.
  49. Sohrabi, F. (2009). Spiritual intelligence fundamentals. Mental Well-being Quarterly, 1(1), 14-17.
  50. Sternberg, J. R. (1999). Successful intelligence: Finding a balance, Trends in Cognitive Science, 3, 436 -442.
  51. Thomas, D. C., & Inkson, K. (2005). Cultural intelligence: People skills for a Global workplace. Consulting to Management, 16(1), 5-9.
  52. Thomas, D. C. (2009). Study of relationship between emotional intelligence and male students' social adaptation in Qom University. M.A. Thesis. Tehran: Tehran University.
  53. Tsai, T., & Lawrence, N. (2011). The relationship between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural adaptation of international students in Taiwan. International conference on management (ICM) .Proceeding available  on:http://www.internationalconference.com.
  54. Veughan, F. (2003). What is spiritual intelligence? Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 4, 16-33.
  55. Yarmohamadian, A. Sharafi Rad, H. (2012). Analysis of emotional intelligence and teenagers' social adaptation. Applied Sociology, 22(4), 35-50.
  56. Yi-Chen, S. (2009). A study of the relationship among cultural Intelligence, emotional intelligence, cultural shock and cross-cultural adjustment.
  57. Yousefi, M. (2014). Relationship between social adaptation and students' self-efficiency in Bandar-e- Lenge. Payam-e- Nour University.
  58. Zaki, M.A. (2011). Students' adaptation to university and its correspondence with social support. A case study of male and female students in Isfahan University. Science and Culture Journal, 4, 107-130.