Sociological Influence of Critical and Social Pedagogy on Young Learners' English Education

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D Candidate, Department of English Language Teaching, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol, Iran

2 Department of Social Sciences, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol, Iran


Education, by regarding the social and critical elements can be traced back to the 20th century. Critical pedagogy was started out of the need of reforming education in a way that it would acknowledge the influence of the present social and political elements in each and every educational context. Some critical theorists applied ideas in critical theories to education in the society. In this regard, social pedagogy describes a holistic and relationship-centered way of working in care and educational settings with people across the course of their lives. In actual fact politically and socially engaged critiques of power in everyday life, communities, and institutions are exactly what are needed to develop critical and social pedagogies in language education. This paper aims to study descriptively about the sociological effect of critical and social pedagogy on young learners' English education.


Akbari, R. (2008). Transforming lives: introducing critical pedagogy into ELT classrooms. ELT Journal, 62(3).doi:10.1093/elt/ccn025.
    Aliakbari, M. & Faraji, E. (2009). Basic principles of critical pedagogy. Paper presented in the International Conference on English Language Teaching ICELTL2009. Hotel Equatorial Melaka, Malaysia. IPEDR, 17 (2011) Singapore: IACSIT Press.
AngeIil-Carter, S. (1997). Second language acquisition of spoken and writtenEnglish:Acquiring the skeptron. TESOL Quarterly, 31,263-287.
Apple, M. W. (1999). Power, meaning, and identity. New York: Peter Lang.
Auerbach, E. (1993). Putting the P back in participator. TESOL Quarterly, 27(1), 543-547.
Bird, V. & Eichsteller, G. (2011). The relevance of social pedagogy in working with young people in residential care. http://www.goodenough
Cameron, C. & Moss, P. (2011). Social Pedagogy and Working with Children. London: Jessica Kingsley.
Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cox, M. I. P., & Assis-Peterson, A. A. d. (1999).Critical pedagogy in ELT: Images of Brazilian teachers of English. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 433-484.
Eichsteller, G., & Holthoff, S. (2012). The art of being a social pedagogue: Developing cultural change in children’s homes in Essex. International Journal of Social Pedagogy, 1(1), 30–46.
Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. B. Ramos, Trans.). New York: Continuum.
Freire, P. (1982). Education as the practice of freedom (M. B. Ramos, Trans.).In Education for critical consciousness (pp. 1-84). New York: The Continuum Publishing Company.
Freire, P. (1998). Teachers as cultural workers - letters to those who dare teach (trans. by D. Macedo, D. Koike & A. Oliveira) Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Giroux, H. (2010). Lessons From Paulo Freire, Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 10/20/10.             
Hall, G. (2000). Local approaches to critical pedagogy: An investigation into the dilemmas raised by critical approaches to ELT. CRILE Publications. Linguistics Department, Lancaster University.
Hämäläinen, J. (2003). The concept of social pedagogy in the field of social work. Journal of Social Work, 3(1), 69–80.
Holthoff, S., & Eichsteller, G. (2009). Social pedagogy: The practice. Every Child Journal, 1(1), 58–63.
Kasaian, S. A. and Subbakrishna, R. Iranian Parents’ Resistance to Incompatible Aspects of Western Culture: Implications for ELT Material Development. ELT Journal4/1, pp.230-239.
Pennycook, A. (1998) English and the Discourses of Colonialism. London: Routledge.
Pennycook, A. (1999). Introduction: Critical approaches to TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 329-348.
Phillipson, R. (1990). English Language Teaching and Imperialism’. Denmark, Tronnige.
Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Petrie, P. (2011). Communication Skills for Working with Children and Young People: Introducing Social Pedagogy. London: Jessica Kingsley.
Rajagopalan, K. (2004). The Concept of “World English” and its Implications for ELT.ELT Journal 58/2,pp.111-117.
Richards, J.C. (2003).Current trends in teaching listening and speaking. Transcript of JALT National Conference, Shizuoka, November 22-24, 2003. Tokyo: OUP.
Sadeghi, S. (2009). Critical pedagogy in an EFL teaching context: An ignisfatuus or an alternative approach? In L.J.Zhang, R. Rubdy& L. Alsagoff (Eds.).Englishes and Literatures-in-English in a Globalised World: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on English in Southeast Asia (pp. 362-375). Singapore: National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University.
Sharifian, F. (ed.) (2009).English as an International Language: Perspectives and pedagogical issues. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Smith, M., & Whyte, B. (2008). Social education and social pedagogy: Reclaiming a Scottish tradition in social work. European Journal of Social Work, 11(1), 15–28.