Qualitative and Sociological Analysis of Prostitution in Bajnord

Document Type: Original Article


1 Ph.D Candidate, Department of Sociology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Sociology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran



This study examines the experience of living and understanding the perceptions of prostitutes. The research in terms of the purpose is exploratory, in terms of the implementation is qualitative and based on the interpretive paradigm, in terms of the results is applied and in terms of the criteria of the time is Cross sectional research. From a systematic analysis of deep interviewing with 16 participants (prostitutes, pimps, and customers) the grounded theory was conducted based on Strauss and Corbin's approach. After the open and axial coding, 80 sub categories and 20 main categories was extracting. Ultimately based on the selective coding, the central phenomenon was formulated in the form of "prostitution, conflict resolution in the cycle of poverty, insecurity and exploitation". The results of the research showed that the central phenomenon was influenced by a set of underlying conditions including "deficiency in household and women-related laws" and "instability in socio-economic conditions" and interventional conditions including "deprivations from traditional culture", "inappropriate marriage", "addiction and acceleration in the propensity to prostitute", "domestic violence", "weak social skills", "shaky family" and "educational background", and causal conditions has included "social insecurity", "the prosperity of the market for exploitation" and "the increasing poverty of the household." Prostitutes also use strategies such as "active compliance with existing status" and "cross-sectional/non-enforced resistance" that results in "incapacitated risk aversion", "continuous exposure to violence" and "family dedication of everyday life.”


 Abolhassan, H. (1999). Introduction to sociological schools and theories. Tehran: Marandiz.

Abbaszadeh, M. (2011). Application of trinity in qualitative research (with emphasis on the contextual theory approach), Journal of Humanities Methodology, 17, 166- 147.

Alavi, S. (2010). The effect of social factors on people's tendency to addiction, robbery and prostitution. Islam and Educational Research, 2, 5-20.

Babi, E. (2002). Research methods in social sciences, translated by Reza Fazel.Tehran: Samat.

Cho,Seo-Y., (2013). Does legalized prostitution increase human trafficking?, World Development, 41, 67–82.

Church, S. (2003). The social organization of sex work: implications for female prostitute’s health and safety. (PhD thesis submitted in University of Glasgow in 2003).

Dhavaleshwar, C.U., Umesh, T. (2012). Socio economic status of prostitutes and intervention of social work. Thematic Journal of Social Sciences, 1 (4), 102-105.

Fatehi, A.; Sadeghi, S., & Ekhlasi, E. (2009). Description and analysis of sociological and psychological characteristics of prostitute girls and women in Isfahan province.

Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualititative research. Chicago: Aldine publishing Company.

Howell, J. (2003). Economic and social obligations of womens prostitutes in Southern Mexico, Women & International Development, 202 , 25-35.

 Harrcourt, H. (2005).  Sexually transmitted infections, national center in HIV epidemiology and clinical research. University of New South Wales.

Haig, B, (1995). Grounded Theory as scientific method. University of Canterbury: Philosophy of Education Society.

Haghanifar, M. (2011). Sociology of divorce and family disputes. Sabzevar: Azhand Publications.

Igbo, E. U. M. & Anugwom, E. E. (2002). Social زhange and سocial problems: A Nigerian Perspective. Nsukka: AP Express Publishers.

Jarbani, H. (2010). Statistical survey of Iranian women crimes.Legal Journal of Justice, 72, 71-117.

John-Fisk, H. (2013). Uncovering the realities of prostitutes and their children in a cross national comparative study between India and the U.S (A PhD Thesis submitted in University of Utah in August 2013).

Kim, W.S. (2013). Measuring the non-observed economy: a survey-based study of demand in the Korean prostitution market. Berkeley Undergraduate Journal, 26 (1), 124-147.

Long, B. (2012). Freedom for women in the sex work occupation: Twenty-Three reasons why prostitution should be legalized In America. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2 , 16 [Special Issue – August 2012.

Lowman, J., Fraser, L. (1996).Violence against persons who prostitute: the experience in British Columbia. Department of Justice Canada Technical Report TR1996-14e.

Mohammadpour, A. (2009). Semantic reconstruction of family change by background theory: Case Studies of Mangur and Gorak, Research Family Quarterly, 5, 19-39.

Mohammadpour, A. (2011). Anti-method: Logic and qualitative methodology design. Tehran: Sociologists Publications.

Nnachi, R. O. (2007). Advanced psychology of learning and scientific enquiries. Enugu: John Jacob‘s Classic Publishers Ltd.

Oyeoku, E.K., Ngwoke, D.U., Eskay, M., Obikwelu, C.L. (2014). Perceived impact of prostitution tendencies on academic performance of university undergraduates in South East Nigeria. Global Journal for Research Analysis, 3(1), 45-47.

 Scelles, F. (2016). Prostitution: exploitation, persecution, repression, 4th global report, economic. Paris: France.

-Ritchie, J., & Lewis, J. (2003). Qualitative research practices: A guide for social science students and researchers. London: Sage.

Scott, J. & Marshall, G. (2005). Oxford dictionary of sociology. New York, Oxford University Press.

Scelles, F. (2016). Prostitution: exploitation, persecution, repression, 4th global report, economica. Paris: France.

Sallmann, J. (2010). Living with stigma: women’s experiences of prostitution and substance use. Journal of Women and Social Work, 25 (2), 146-159.

Sotoudeh, H. (2010). Social pathology (Sociology of deviations). Tehran: Avaye Noor.

Sedigh Soroshtani, R. (2011). Social pathology. Tehran: Samat Publications.